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Wednesday, 6 September 2017

The Sorrows of Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God

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Devotion to the Sorrows (Dolors) of Blessed Virgin Mary!

Introduction

The purpose of the Devotion of the Seven Sorrows is to promote union with the sufferings of Christ through union with the special suffering that Our Lady endured because she was the Mother of God. By uniting ourselves with both the Passion of Christ and His holy Mother, we enter into Jesus' Heart and honor Him greatly; He is more honored because we have so honored His Mother.

The Seven Dolors are taken from Scripture events and the devotion has a long history, although it was not officially promulgated by the Church until the early nineteenth century when it was approved by Pope Pius VII. Before Pope Pius VII's formal approval, the Servite Order had permission in 1668 to celebrate the Feast of the Seven Dolors because the Order was instrumental in popularizing the Seven Sorrows Devotion.

In the Middle Ages, Catholic theology concentrated mostly on Christ's Passion; at the side of the Man of Sorrows, however, the faithful always contemplated the Queen of Martyrs. Devotion to the Crucified Christ and to Our Lady of sorrows grew side by side. On Calvary there were in a sense two altars, one in the Body of Jesus, and the other in the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Christ immolated His flesh; Mary immolated Her heart and Her own soul.

On September 15, the day following the ancient feast of the Holy Cross, the Church commemorates the compassion of Mary; but it is fitting during the year, especially during Lent, to honor the Sorrows of Mary.


Mary is not mentioned in the Gospel accounts of Christ's Transfiguration, His entry into Jerusalem, but she is recorded as being present at Calvary. She understood what the Will of God was and was faithful, co-operating with her Son as Co-redemptrix. She had prepared the victim for sacrifice and now she offered Him on the altar of Calvary.

The Gospel, John 19:25, says:

“Near the Cross of Jesus stood His mother, his mother's sister, Mary, the wife of Cleopas, and Mary Magdalene.” At Christ's bequest, Mary was proclaimed the universal Mother of mankind from the Cross.

Mary had three loves in her Immaculate Heart: God, her Son, and souls. She so loved the world that she gave her only Son. As St. Bernard said, “The sword would not have reached Jesus if it had not pierced Mary's heart.” Mary loved souls and on Calvary, after suffering such cruel torments she merited being the mother of all mankind.

Mary is the Apostle because she is Co-redemptrix: Behold Mary on Calvary, she suffers and prays; she stands, as one offering sacrifice.


St. Ambrose said, “I read that she stood, but I do not read that she wept.” When Mary gave us her Son, she gave us everything. Therefore it can very well be said: "Behold this heart which has so greatly loved all people that it has spared nothing for them."
 


The Seven Graces of this Devotion

Our Lady Made promises to those who will be devoted to Her sorrows. These promises are:


  1. I will grant peace to their families.
  2.They will be enlightened about the Divine mysteries.
  3. I will console them in their pains and I will accompany them in their work.
  4. I will give them as much as they ask for as long as it does not oppose the adorable will of my Divine Son or the sanctification of their souls.
  5. I will defend them in their spiritual battles with the infernal enemy and I will protect them at every instant of their lives.
  6. I will visibly help them at the moment of their death, they will see the face of their Mother.
  7. I have obtained this Grace from my Divine Son, that those who propagate this devotion to my tears and dolors, will be taken directly from this earthly life to eternal happiness since all their sins will be forgiven and my Son and I will be their eternal consolation and joy.

Benefits of the Devotion to the Mother of Sorrows

1. To realize the value of a soul, worth the supreme Sacrifice on Calvary.
2. To work for souls, by evangelization, duty to life's duties, and
prayer for sinners.
3. To pray always, in a life of union with God; whoever has a heart similar to Jesus' and Mary's hearts, will work for the salvation of souls.
When we commit sin we bring sorrow to Our Lady, for she is, indeed
our very Mother, our spiritual Mother, and she watches over
us as she watched over her Baby, nearly two thousand years ago.
It is the desire of Jesus that we should think of His Passion, to offer Him
our devotion and to renew our sorrow for sin. It is also His desire,
as the Church makes clear to us, that we should think of the
compassion of Mary in His Passion.


The Mass for the Feast of the Seven Dolors includes the traditional hymn, the Stabat Mater, which is traditionally included by verses in the 14 Stations of the Cross. St. Bonaventure is considered the author of the Hymn. We present it below in its entirety both in Latin and in English. At the conclusion of the 7th Sorrow you will find two prayers to Our Lady of Sorrows, one by St. Bonaventure and one by St. Alphonse Liguori.

Stabat mater dolorosa
Latin
English
Stabat mater dolorosa
iuxta crucem lacrimosa
dum pendebat filius
At the Cross her station keeping,
Stood the mournful Mother weeping,
Close to Jesus at the last.
cuius animam gementem
contristantem et dolentem
pertransivit gladius
Though her soul, of joy bereaved,
Bowed with anguish, deeply grieved,
Now at length the sword hath passed.
quam tristis et afflicta fuit
illa benedicta mater unigenti
quae maerebat et dolebat et tremebat dum videbat
nati poenas incliti
Oh how sad and sore distressed
Was that Mother, highly blest,
Of the sole begotten One!
Oh that silent, ceaseless mourning,
Oh those dim eyes, never turning
From that wondrous, suffering Son!
Quis est homo qui no fleret
matrem Christi si videret
in tanto supplicio
Quis non posset contristari
piam matrem contemplari
dolentem cum filio
Who on Christ's dear Mother gazing,
In her trouble so amazing,
Born of woman would not weep?
Who on Christ's dear Mother thinking,
Such a cup of sorrow drinking,
Would not share her sorrow deep? 
Pro peccatis suae gentis
vidit Iesum in tormentis
et flagellis subditum
vidit suum dulcem natum
morientem desolatum
dum emisit spiritum
For the sins of His own nation,
Saw Him hang in desolation
Till His Spirit forth He sent;
Bruised, derided, cursed, defiled,
She beheld her tender Child,
All with bloody scourges rent.
Eia mater fons amoris
O, thou Mother, fount of love!
Me sentire vim doloris
fac ut tecum lugeam
Fac ut ardeat cor meum
in amando Christum Deum
ut sibi complaceam
Touch my spirit from above,
Make my heart with thine accord.
Make me feel as thou hast felt;
Make my soul to glow and melt
With the love of Christ my Lord. 
Sancta mater istud agas
crucifixi fige plagas
cordi meo valide
tui nati vulnerati
tam dignati pro me pati
poenas mecum divide
Fac me vere tecum flere
crucifixo condolere
donec ego vixero
iuxta crucem tecum stare
meque tibi sociare
in planctu desidero
Holy Mother, pierce me through.
In my heart each wound renew
Of my Savior crucified;
Let me share with thee His pain,
Who for all my sins was slain,
Who for me in torment died.
Let me mingle tears with thee,
Mourning Him who mourned for me,
All the days that I may live.
By the cross with thee to stay,
There with thee to weep and pray,
Is all I ask of thee to give.
Virgo virginium praeclara
mihi iam non sis amara
fac me tecum plangere
fac ut portem Christi mortem
passionis fac consortem
et plagas recolere
Fac me plagis vulnerari
cruce had inebriari
et cruore filii
Virgin of all virgins blest,
Listen to my fond request;
Let me share thy grief divine.
Let me to my latest breath,
In my body bear the death
Of that dying Son of thine.
Wounded with His every wound,
Steep my soul till it hath swooned
In His very blood away.
per te Virgo sim defensus
inflamatus et accensum
in die iudicii
Be to me, O Virgin, nigh,
Lest in flames I burn and die
In His awful judgment day.
Fac me cruce custodiri
morte Christi praemuniri
confoveri gratia
Christ, when Thou shalt call me hence,
Be Thy Mother my defense,
Be Thy Cross my victory.
Quando corpus morietur
fac ut animae donetur
paradisi Gloria
While my body here decays
May my soul Thy goodness praise
Safe in Paradise with Thee.

The Devotion
1 The Presentation in the Temple
Sorrow as sharp as a sword shall pierce Mary's heart because of her Child. Mary is in the Temple, having come with Joseph to present the Child to God. They meet Simeon, the holy man, and Anna, the prophetess. Simeon takes the Baby in his arms, saying he will now die in peace because he has seen Christ, then he foretells the sorrow to come.

V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
1. I grieve for you, O Mary, most sorrowful, in the affliction of your tender heart at the prophecy of the holy and aged Simeon. Dear Mother, by your heart so afflicted, obtain for me the virtue of humility and the gift of the holy fear of God.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.

2 The Flight into Egypt
Soon the sword of sorrow strikes. Herod the King seeks to kill the Child. Warned in sleep by an angel, Joseph takes Jesus and His Mother Mary, setting out for Egypt, where they lived in obscurity and poverty until it was safe to return to Nazareth. 
V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
2. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, in the anguish of your most affectionate heart during the flight into Egypt and your sojourn there.
Dear Mother, by your heart so troubled, obtain for me the virtue of generosity, especially toward the poor, and the gift of piety.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.

3 The Loss of Jesus in the Temple
When Jesus is twelve, He is taken to Jerusalem for the Feast of Passover. On the return journey Joseph and Mary find at the end of the first day that Jesus is not with them. Racked with anxiety, they search for Him. Nobody in the streets, not even the beggars, can tell them where He is. Not till the third day do they find Him, in the Temple.
V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
 
3. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, in those anxieties which tried your troubled heart at the lost of your dear Jesus. Dear Mother, by your heart so full of anguish, obtain for me the virtue of chastity and the gift of knowledge.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen. 

4 The Way to Calvary
  Mary has known fear and sorrow, but none so great as seeing her beloved Son stumbling under the weight of the Cross. She hears the jeering shouts from the crowd and has no power to help Him. Pity and love are in her eyes as she gazes at His blood-stained face. To many around her He is no better than a criminal, and her heart is breaking as she follows Him to Calvary or Golgotha.

V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
 4. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, in the consternation of your heart at meeting Jesus as He carried His cross. Dear Mother, by your heart so troubled, obtain for me the virtue of patience and the gift of fortitude.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of  thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.

5 The Crucifixion of Jesus
With John, Mary stands at the foot of the Cross. "A sword shall pierce thy soul," Simeon told her. Truly her heart is pierced with sorrow. Her beloved Son is dying and she shares in His suffering. She does not ask God to take away this agony. She is His Mother, so close to Him that His pain is hers, too. And now He speaks from the Cross: "Woman, behold thy son." Jesus give His Mother to John, and to us. For all eternity she is our Mother.

V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
5. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, in the martyrdom which your generous heart endured in standing near Jesus in His agony. Dear Mother, by your afflicted heart, obtain for me the virtue of temperance and the gift of counsel.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.

6 Jesus was taken Down from the Cross
 It is over.  Dark clouds have appeared in the sky and upon the world. Jesus is dead. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus take down the Body from the Cross. and Mary receives It in her arms. She is filled with a sadness that no human heart has known. This is her Son. Once she had cradled Him in her arms. listened to His voice, watched Him working at the carpenter's bench. Now He is dead. She does not weep, her grief is too great for tears.
 

V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
6. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, in the wounding of your compassionate heart, when the side of Jesus was struck by the lance before His Body was removed from the cross. Dear Mother, by your heart thus transfixed, obtain for me the virtue of fraternal charity and the gift of
understanding.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.

7 The Burial of Jesus
Hastily the Body is wrapped in a clean linen cloth. Nicodemus has brought myrrh and aloes, and the Body is bound in the Shroud with them. nearby is a new tomb, belonging to Joseph of Arimathea, and there they lay Jesus. Mary and John and the holy women follow them and watch as the great stone to the sepulchre is rolled. it is the end.
 
V: O God, come to my assistance;
R: O Lord, make haste to help me
V: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
R: As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
7. I grieve for you, O Mary most sorrowful, for the pangs that wrenched your most loving heart at the burial of Jesus. Dear Mother, by your heart sunk in the bitterness of desolation, obtain for me the virtue of diligence and the gift of wisdom.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.
PRAYER OF ST. BONAVENTURE TO
THE MOTHER OF SORROWS
O sorrowful Virgin, unite me at least to the humiliations and wounds of thy Son, so that both He and thee may find comfort in having someone sharing thy sufferings. Oh, how happy I would be if I could do this! For is there perhaps anything greater, sweeter, or more advantageous for a person? Why dost thou not grant me what I ask? If I have offended thee, be just and pierce my heart. If I have been faithful to thee, leave me not without a reward: give me thy sorrows.
 
PRAYER OF ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI
 
O afflicted Virgin, O soul great in virtues, as in sorrows, both the one and the other spring from that great fire burning in thy heart for God, the only love of thy heart!
Mother, have pity on me, who has not loved God, and who has so greatly offended Him. Thy sorrows, it is true, assure me of pardon, but that is not sufficient. I wish to love God. Who could obtain for me that grace if not thee, who are the Mother of holy love! O Mary, Thou consolest everyone; favor me also, with thy consolations. Amen. 

Presented by Malachy Mary Igwilo, 6th September 2017   



Sunday, 3 September 2017

‘Pope’ Francis CONDEMNED by Pope Saint Pius X


Image result for pope pius x




St. Pius X was a fiery Pope who saw through the deceit of modernism, a philosophy from the pit of hell and which was being propagated by the Masonic forces inside the Catholic Church! He personally sought to end modernism in every corner of the Church and asked EVERY priest, religious or Bishop to take an oath against modernism! 



As soon as Freemasonic Modernist took over the structures of the Catholic Church at Vatican II Council, they quietly suppressed this oath which was against them! No one will hear again about oath against modernism! Ofcouse the Devil and his agents are smart! Take a look at the oath against modernism here This battle against modernism was won by this great Pope and Saint whom we celebrate today!


But when some of Pope Saint Pius X’s friends sought to congratulate him for his achievements against modernism, he humbly declined to engage in self-praise or accept congratulatory messages from friends! He said that although he seem to have defeated modernism, but modernism has gone underground and will return more virulent than before UNLESS we Catholics increase our vigilance!


Today modernism is the order of the day! If you are not a modernist, you are seen today as a fool!



Many people who claim to be Catholics and who have read about St. Pius X have ignored his teachings! They have joined the enemies of the Church in their false religion and have actively participated in aiding and abating modernists to take over Catholic structures and buildings worldwide, posing as Church hierarchy!



The reason why modernists took over catholic buildings was because Catholics let down their guards and developed false hope that God will protect the Church always even without human efforts! No, God will ONLY protect the Church if there are people willing to keep the true faith and invite God’s protection! No wonder Christ Himself asked ‘when the Son of Man returns, will He, think you, find faith remaining in the world?’

A grand religion whose MAIN philosophy is modernism is today masquerading as the Catholic Church and many thinking people are with this false religion risking their souls! They have refused to heed the warnings of Pope Saint Pius X. To read the warnings and teachings of Pope Saint Pius X on modernism, please read His encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis.



Today the head of this gigantic false religion is Jorg Bergoglio whom people foolishly call ‘pope’ Francis!



Francis is an epitome of modernism just like other pretenders before him like John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul I, John Paul II and Benedict XVI! All these people some of them closet masons corrupted the Church doctrines in favor of modernism, the philosophy of Satan!



It is routine that Francis as a modernist continues to manufacture new heretical doctrines every day! That is the hall mark of a modernist! A modernist is never going to present any Catholic doctrine without presenting a heresy along with the truth thereby confusing the gullible! The Documents of the evil Vatican II Council are full of statements that may suggest that it is Catholics that wrote it. But besides these seemingly Catholics language, you will see abominable modernist languages presenting outright heresies in full view of everyone who care to look! That is how the devil works. He will pretend to give the true doctrine and then perverts it with a heresy!



Recently, Francis taught people that communists are Christians! That is an outright lie! While people are still trying to wonder why the man is preaching for the devil! He produces another heresy! He taught people that IF anyone denies communion to a divorced and remarried person, the person is being pharisaical! Remember that Christ Himself taught that no one can divorce His wife! The Church teaches that IF anyone is involved in divorce and ‘remarriage’ the person is in mortal sin and therefore cannot approach communion! Francis presenting himself as ‘pope’ counter’s Christ Himself and people continue to call him ‘pope’!


But we know the truth! Modernists are evil people as was taught by Pope Saint Pius X! Pope Saint Pius X has therefore condemned Francis as an evil man! Those who follow Francis are participating in evil and therefore risking their souls!


Ofcouse the ultimate aim of modernism is to damn as many millions of people to hell as possible to the greater glory of the devil!


To read more about the evil activities if this wicked modernists called Francis, you need to read here, here, here and here! No need to say: Anyone wishing to save His soul today MUST flee from Francis and his religion and all the things his supporters, support!


What is Modernism?

According to Pope Saint Pius X, modernism is the ‘synthesis of all heresies’! In other words, you will see some remnants of other condemned heresy in modernism!


In summary, modernism is a philosophical idea that suggests that ALL things, including doctrines must be in constant flux! All things must be changing! In other words, modernism represents the idea that there is no truth! Truth must be seen as warranted acceptability, that is, it is what we accept that is true! No wonder the Novus Ordo/Vatican II religion is always changing its doctrines based on current social doctrines! Note that modernism is different from modernity!

Modernity is the changing nature of human technological society. You will see that the computer is becoming flatter and smarter and can process more information than before! This development is called modernity!

There are three ideas people use interchangeably when they speak of modernism. These are ideas are liberalism and progressivism!
Liberalism, Modernism and Progressivism, in a certain sense, are like grandparent, father and son of the same family. The best introduction to the evils of liberalism and what is called ‘liberal Catholics’ is this book.

Liberal in the ideological spectrum has little to do with liberal as a synonymn of generous, magnanimous, munificent, which are original meanings - good to know in order to set them aside when dealing with modern Liberalism.

Ideologically speaking, a liberal is, in a general sense, any person who accepted the principles of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution – Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. Liberal is a term that comes from the acceptation of that revolutionary liberty. By extension, the liberal accepted other consequences of the French Revolution, such as the separation of Church and State, secular education for children and youth, civil marriages, homosexual marriages, and mainly, the idea that equal status should be given to all religions before the civil law.


In that historical phase, the term liberal Catholic applied to those who accepted the French Revolution and swore fidelity to the Modern State born from it. Thus, the French ecclesiastics who swore fidelity to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy were Liberal Catholics.


The term evolved, and took on a broader meaning. Liberal Catholics became those who – without taking any formal oath – accepted the principles specified above, and assimilated them as a part of their mentality. In this light, liberal Catholics would accept the principle of the sovereignty of the people as mandatory for any political regime; hence, they would accept that the democracy which issued from the French Revolution would be a legitimate system of government, or even the only legitimate one.


This position implied a rejection of Catholic monarchy, whose last version had been beheaded by the French Revolution. This anti-monarchist position of liberal Catholics was reflected within the Church. Many liberal ecclesiastics wanted to apply democracy to the Church’s hierarchical structure as well. This explains why in 1869, when Vatican Council I was convened, the liberal Bishops, such as Strossmayer and Dupanloup, opposed the Petrine Primacy and Papal Infallibility as they were solemnly defined by Pius IX in union with that Council in the Constitution on the Church, Pastor Aeternus (July 18, 1870).


The counter-revolutionary Catholics who opposed Catholic Liberalism took positions against the French Revolution and its consequences. Therefore, they favored sustaining the more than 1,000-year-old Catholic French monarchy, the union of Church and State, Catholic education, Catholic marriage with the full force of law, etc. They were also favorable to the monarchy in the Church as well, and therefore they were enthusiasts of the Petrine Papacy and Papal Infallibility.


These anti-liberal Catholics became known as ultramontane Catholics, because they defended the Papacy which was in Rome, beyond the mountains, the Alps, in relation to France, where most of the ultramontane force gathered. Ultramontanism became synonymous with anti-Liberalism.

Famous ultramontane Catholics include Joseph de Maistre, Louis Veuillot and Dom Guéranger in France, Donoso Cortés in Spain, Taparelli D’Azeglio in Italy, Manning and Faber in England, von Ketteler in Germany, Rauscher in Austria.


Modernist was that Catholic who blatantly wanted to make a ralliement not only with the Modern State, but with the entire modern world - modern philosophy, modern science, and even the modern myths. So many adhesions to the modern epoch naturally generated the name of Modernism to characterize that current.


While Liberalism was mainly turned toward the political sphere, Modernism extended to philosophy and assimilated part of German Idealism. Namely, the theory that there is an essential divine immanence in the human soul formulated by Schleiermacher was assumed by Johann Adam Möhler, the Catholic founder of the Theological School of Tübingen, Germany. From there it influenced both German and French Modernism. From philosophy, this error simultaneously gained ground in theology and extended to the social sphere, all propagated by Freemasons. The various types of Modernists that resulted from this process are described in Pascendi by St. Pius X. Modernism is much broader and more structured than its predecessor, Catholic Liberalism.

A progressivist differs from a modernist in two important developments of the same errors: the extension of their consequences and the subtlety of their expression.

Regarding its expanded consequences, Progressivism came to light simultaneously as a four-fold movement: liturgical, biblical, patristic and social.

The liturgical movement started in the 1920s in various Benedictine Abbeys – Maria Laach in Germany, Maredsous in France and Amay sur Meuse in Belgium – fostering the participation of the people as if they were as essential as the priest in the Mass. Also a bad ecumenism assimilated into the liturgy Protestant ideas such as that the Mass is less a sacrifice and more a banquet, that the word of God is as important as the Eucharist, the priest does not offer the mass, he presides, etc.


In parallel, the ambience of mystery proper to the Greek Schismatics was praised - first in liturgy, then in dogmatic theology. Hence the liturgical movement presented the Church as a Mystery – the Mystical Body of Christ – in opposition to the Militant Church, which supposes a visible and hierarchical society.


The biblical movement basically promoted a new interpretation of Holy Scriptures. According to it, the sacred texts should be understood not as they were written, but conditioned to their historic context, the literary genre used, the testimonies of witnesses upon which the sacred authors based themselves, the social and cultural influences present at the time, etc. To achieve such an interpretation, biblical scholars needed to employ extensive archeological research, the contribution of natural sciences, as well as the consensus of contemporary social and psychological theories, which propose to explain the behavior of society and the individual. With so many different criteria, the practical consequence is a free interpretation of the Scriptures: a goal that pleases Protestants and favors ecumenism.


The principal protagonist of the biblical movement was the French Dominican Fr. Marie Joseph Lagrange, who was the founder of the Biblical Institute of Jerusalem (1891) under Leo XIII. Lagrange escaped condemnation as a Modernist and remained quiet under the pontificate of St. Pius X. In the 1920s, his Historic Method took over Catholic exegesis.

The main goal of the patristic movement, also called re-sourcement [return to the sources] was to jump back over Scholasticism to the thinking of the Fathers of the Church. It was a way to eclipse Scholasticism and its logic. Adepts of this movement sought out those Fathers whose writings had marked Platonic tendencies, or even mistakes that further down the line, the Church had transcended or condemned. In the 19th century this movement had been initiated by Möhler and Scheeben in Germany and Newman in England. From the 1930s on it would take on a new strength and extension with the commentaries on the Fathers by von Balthasar, De Lubac, and Danielou, to name a few of the many components of the Nouvelle Theologie, the theology of Vatican II. 

The social movement represented the marriage of the Church with the revolutionary world as such. A similar attempt had been halted with the condemnation of the Sillon movement by St. Pius X. The principal protagonists of the progressivist social movement included Belgian Fr. Joseph Cardijn who founded the Jeunesse Ouvriere Catholique – JOC [Catholic Youth Workers,] in 1924; French Dominican Fr. Louis Joseph Lebret who founded the Jeunesse Etudiante Catholique – JEC [Catholic Student Youth] in 1929, and French Dominican Fr. Jacques Loew who founded the Worker Priests in 1941. These associations and all that revolutionary social work that proceeded from them had a practical consequence of uniting Catholic social work to Communism under the pretext of helping the poor. Following the same path of adaptation to the revolutionary world, Progressivism joined with Communism, just as Liberalism had united with the French Revolution around 150 years before.

From these four movements, Progressivism extended to modern philosophy, accepting Phenomenology and Existentialism, extravagant consequences of German Idealism, and to theology, “re-reading” all the dogmas of the Church and presenting interpretations different than the traditional ones.


Regarding its subtlety, Progressivism differs from Modernism in this: until their victory at Vatican II, progressivists tried to avoid the condemnations of St. Pius X in Pascendi and Pius IX in the Syllabus of errors. Even though they upheld the same errors, they were careful to present them in a less blatant version, as similar as possible to orthodox doctrine. Therefore, it can be more difficult and complicated to catch these errors.

These are the main differences and analogies regarding the three terms: liberal Catholic, modernist, and progressivist.

So, if you refer to the present day progressivists as liberals or modernists, most probably the person with whom you are speaking will understand what you mean. But, you open the door to more confusion, especially if you are talking to people who lack historical education or even Catholic education.

Actually, it is not a good habit to call the son by the first name of the father or the grandson by the first name of his grandfather. The normal practice is to call each one by his individual name; today we should use the forename progressivists and they are evil!

Presented By Malachy Mary Igwilo, 3rd September 2017, Feast of Pope St. Pius X